Website links are prone to change over time and can become out of date before the end of life of a particular guideline. This page has been created to enable regular updates to be applied.

Guidelines on the Consequence Categories for Dams (Oct 2012)


Floodsite (2009) Modelling Breach Initiation and Growth. Report No. T060802. At < html/partner_area/project_docs/T06_08_02_ModellingBreachInitiationandGrowth_D6_1v1_9_P01.pdf >, accessed 13/09/2023.

Floodsite (2009) Breach Initiation and Growth: Physical Processes. Report No. T060811. At <www.>, accessed 13/09/2023.

Hill, P., McDonald, L., Payne, E. (2007) Incremental Consequences of Dam Failure and the ANCOLD Hazard Classification System, ANCOLD Conference 2007.

Stephenson, D. Furumele, M. (2001) A Hazard-Risk Index for Urban Flooding, International Association of Hydraulic Engineering and Research Congress 16–21 September 2001, Beijing. At <> – broken link deleted from digital edition.

Guidelines on the Environmental Management of Dams (2001)

Page 40 – HOWEVER IT HAS NOT BEEN POSSIBLE FOR THESE PAPERS TO BEREVIEWED IN THE COMPILATION OF THIS DOCUMENT. They can however be accessed on the WCD web site at (This reference to has been removed as link as website is incorrect.)

Page 41  – The Act came into operation on 16 July 2000. In theory the Act is triggered if an action will have or is likely to have a significant impact on a matter of national significance. This will include any threat to any protected , wetland migratory species or any nationally threatened species. Requirements for referrals can be accessed at the Environment Australia web site, , accessed 13/09/2023.

Page 87 – PIANC International Navigation Association  – broken link deleted from digital edition.

Guidelines on Risk Assessment 2022

Page 63

A range of new design data and inputs have been released as part of the new guidelines, which include new IFD design rainfall and regional flood estimates for the whole of Australia. These new data sets are available on the ARR Data Hub ( accessed 13/09/2023.

Page 100-101

A few examples of such models are:

1. HEC-LifeSim –  – broken link 

HEC-LifeSim is based on the LifeSim methodology by Aboelata et al. (2002, 2003, 2004) and was publicly released in July 2017 (Fields 2016). The model explicitly simulates the warning and mobilisation of the PAR and predicts the spatial distribution of fatalities across the structures and transport networks expected to be inundated. This capability provides additional insights that can be used to better understand and take measures to reduce the public safety risks. Uncertainties associated with the warning and mobilisation of PAR of dam failure are also addressed by HECLifeSim and each component can be sampled in the Monte Carlo framework. Kavanagh et al. (2017) and Hill et al. (2018) provide descriptions of the application of HEC-LifeSim to Australian case studies.

2. HEC-FIA –, accessed 13/09/2023.

The Hydrologic Engineering Centre – Flood Impacts Assessment (HEC-FIA) model is a spatially distributed dynamic simulation model for assessing the public safety and economic consequences of natural and dam-break flooding. Loss of life is estimated in HEC-FIA using a simplified version of LIFESim (Needham et al. 2010).

3. LSM –, accessed 13/09/2023.

Differences between the LSM and LIFESim are driven by the philosophical principles underpinning the two models. Whereas LIFESim is based on case studies of catastrophic flooding (McClelland and Bowles, 1999), the LSM was deliberately designed to use first principle, physically-based relationships wherever possible to estimate life safety consequences. Because the LSM relies on a first-principles approach, the model is parameter and data-intensive.

Page 103 – Estimates of PAR need to consider both the building’s capacity and the extent to which different types of buildings are likely to be occupied during the day and night. Identifying buildings with large PAR (e.g. schools and hospitals) is particularly important. The number of staff and students at a school, for example, can be estimated using information from – accessed 13/09/2023.

Page 105 – Fatality rates from Dartmouth Floods Observatory – NSW Dams Safety Committee (2005) and Hill et al. (2007) describe analysis of fatality rates inferred from the databases of DFO in New Hampshire and Colorado, USA, which collates information on large floods from around the world ( – accessed 13/09/2023.). Hill et al. (2007) then derive indicative fatality rates as a function of the severity of flooding and WT in a manner, consistent with DSO-99-06 (Graham 1999).

Page 168 – Australian Government Actuary (2017) Australian Life Tables 2015-17, – broken link

Page 169 –  Duncan JM (2000) Factors of Safety and Reliability in Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 126(4).  – broken link

Page 170

Fell R, Foster MA, Davidson R, Cyganiewicz J, Sills G and Vroman N (2008) Risk Analysis for Dam Safety, A Unified Method for Estimating Probabilities of Failure of Embankment Dams by Internal Erosion and Piping, Guidance Document, Delta version, Reclamation, USACE, URS and UNSW. UNICIV Report No. 446, the University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia. – accessed 13/09/2023.

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) (2000) Engineering Guidelines for the Evaluation of Hydropower Projects – Draft Chapter III, Gravity Dams, Office of Energy Projects, Division of Dam Safety and Inspections. – broken link 

Foster MA and Fell. (1999) A Framework for Estimating the Probability of Failure of Embankment Dams by Piping Using Event Tree Methods. UNICIV Report No.377, July 1999, the University of New
South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia. – accessed 13/09/2023.

Page 171

Foster MA, Spannagle M and Fell R (1998) Analysis of embankment dam incidents. UNICIV Report No. R-374, ISBN 85841 349 3; ISSN 0077-880X, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New South Wales. – accessed 13/09/2023.

Page 172

HSE (2001b) Principles and Guidelines to Assist HSE in its Judgements that Duty-Holders Have Reduced Risk As Low As Reasonably Practicable. United Kingdom: Health and Safety Executive. – broken link 

HSE (2001c) Assessing Compliance with the Law in Individual Cases and the Use of Good Practice. United Kingdom: Health and Safety Executive. – broken link 

HSE (2001d) Policy and Guidance on Reducing Risks As Low As Reasonably Practicable in Design. United Kingdom: Health and Safety Executive. – broken link 

HSE (2015b), Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) Checklist. United Kingdom: Health and Safety Executive. (accessed 7 January 2022). – broken link 

HSE (n.d.), ALARP “at a glance”. United Kingdom: Health and Safety Executive. – broken link redirecting to what appears to be a different page not ÁLARP at a glance

Hunter G, Glastonbury J, Ang D and Fell R (2003) The Performance of Concrete Face Rockfill Dams, UNICIV Report No. R-413, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New South Wales.  – accessed 13/09/2023.

Page 176

Pells S and Fell R (2002) Damage and Cracking of Embankment Dams by Earthquakes and the Implications for Internal Erosion and Piping, UNICIV Report No. R-406, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New South Wales. – accessed 13/09/2023.

RSSB (2006) Development and Calibration of a Model for Gauging Societal Concern for the Railway Industry. (Rail Safety and Standards Board, United Kingdom). Report No. D4172R3, (couldn’t locate the report on this website)